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Post Info TOPIC: The liver's stellate cells- good guys-bad guys?


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The liver's stellate cells- good guys-bad guys?
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Very imformative and easy to understand,,even to the "layperson". I too am extremely interested and fascinated by the kickback and the ongoing damage on the body as a whole from HCV.

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Patricia Bein


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Thanks for this. Great explanation of why it is important to stop the virus, especially with cirrhosis - hoping that advanced cirrhosis can be reversed!


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Sue (for husband)

56 M Geno1a, Dx 1994, Decomp. Cirr, Portal Hyp, Doing Tx for Varices, HGB 12, Platelet 55, VL < 1 mil - was on Daklenza/Sovaldi treatment. SVR 4/12/2017 - still with cirrhosis MELD score 12

Tig


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Rob,

Instead of taking this off topic, feel free to start a new thread on AIH or use this old thread. We can discuss it there. Thanks!

http://hepcfriends.activeboard.com/t18227471/auto-immune-hep-and-steroids/



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Tig

62 yo GT1A - 5 Mil - A2/F3 - (1996) Intron A - Non Responder, (2013) Peg/Riba/Vic SOT:05/23/13 EOT:12/04/13 SVR 1-4 years!

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I ran across an article. Discussing some version of The thread.. It was called AIH auto immune hepatitis.... which causes joint pain etc. And is said to cause more liver damage by our own immune system. Has anyone heard of this?



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Thank you for that post Malcolm. Hopefully treatment for liver fibrosis will be the next big push from the pharma companies.

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63 year old EOT 10-28-15,SVR24 April 21 2016  ALT-21/AST-28 July '18 - fibroscan 7.4



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Very cool and informative presentation Malcom! Where do I sign up to continue in your lecture series! smile



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GT 1A Tx Naive Harvoni 8 WK

SOT 6/25/15 VL 468,000 AST 44 ALT 56 

EOT 8/25/15 VL - UND AST 21 ALT 30

ONE YEAR POST TX - UND AST 20 ALT 22



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Good A.M. Malcolm.  Wow what a presentation,  TY 4 that.  I have a ?   I have an incredible amount of heart burn.  It's like a whole bunch of bile is coming up.  Yuck.  Sorry for the description but it's true.  Do you think that this is Harvoni is doing its job, or the complete opposite?    Looking forward to hearing from you!  Be well.     Roey



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58 y o female genotype 1a naive to treatment, 2-1-15 start Harvoni 



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Thank you, makes me feel like I know a lot less than I thought I did 5 min ago! Lol....so if I got this right if you could supercharge those cells after SVR you could repair cirhosiss by reabsorbing the collegen and reducing portal pressure.

Sounds good where do I sign up for this?

Duane



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53yr M 1a acq 12/83 cirr pre tx MELD 17  tx nv diag 1/29/12  tx S/O 3/5/14  trans list.

EOT 5/28/14 UND 6/12/14 SVR 8/29/14 MELD 14 dx HCC 9/5/2014 tumor ablation 9/24/14

In the 10K lakes State It's not about us but those around us.



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BRAVO!!!!!!!!!!!



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Tig


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Hi Malcolm,

That was excellent! I had never seen the course of damage described in such a way. It made me understand the action this virus has initially and what it promotes (kills) along the way. The collagen sheeting explained cirrhosis in a manner that can really be understood. 

This will be very helpful to everyone reading it  I really appreciate you taking the time to do this kind of thing for us, thank you! I recommend everyone to take the time to read this. Well done Malcolm!

Tig

PS: How many credit hours for these courses? I'm working on a new degree biggrin



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Tig

62 yo GT1A - 5 Mil - A2/F3 - (1996) Intron A - Non Responder, (2013) Peg/Riba/Vic SOT:05/23/13 EOT:12/04/13 SVR 1-4 years!

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Hi all,

Today's 'lecture' is on the hepatic stellate cells (HSC's). These little fellows live in the liver in the space of Disse, between the hepatocytes and blood sinusoids. In a normal liver, they are quiescent, and their only function is to store Vitamin A as fat droplets in their cytoplasm. They are derived from mesoderm, and can secrete proteins from all three germ layers, so are thought to be germ cells. They have long projections, that wrap around the blood sinusoids.

When the HepC virus enters liver cells (hepatocytes) and begins to replicate, the hepatocyte is damaged and leaks various chemicals as a call for help. The typical inflammatory response occurs, with the arrival of white blood cells (neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes). As replication continues, hepatocytes begin to die and release further chemicals and debris. The liver has 'garbage-bag' cells called Kupffer cells (K. cells) that mop up all the debris. These K. cells release a host of chemokines and cytokines (chemicals). The names of these are not important but include TGF-alpha, beta1, MMP-9, TNF-alpha and various Interleukins. Some of the white cells also release these, particularly T-cell lymphocytes. All of these are pro-inflammatory.

These cytokines awake the HSC's from their sleeping state. The Vitamin A is dumped and the activated cells are transformed into myofibroblasts. They begin laying down layers of collagen (scar tissue)- initially Collagen Type3, then the stronger Type1. This is the typical response to injury.  Seal it up.  As the HCV continues to damage the liver, more and more collagen is formed, initially in the periportal areas, then spreading.  The long arms of the transformed HSC's are contractile, and they wrap around the blood sinusoids trying to decrease the portal vein flow.  The holes (sequestra) in the limiting plate are closed by the collagen, and the hepatocyte projections into the sinusoids are obliterated.  This 'protects' the hepatocyte from the nasties in the portal vein (virus and stuff from the gut).  This protective layer builds up, and this is why some of our antiviral drugs have poor access to hepatocytes.  As time passes, often years, of HCV replication, these collagen deposits spread through the liver.  Wherever hepatocytes are dying, the HSC's migrate and form collagen.  We know the different classifications of liver fibrosis.  F4 means there are sheets of collagen throughout the liver forming 'scars'.  Hepatocytes trying to replicate are trapped and form nodules, often without an adequate blood supply or bile drainage.  Meanwhile the HSC's keep squeezing the portal blood vessels, trying to limit the liver's work-load, so we get the familiar portal hypertension.  Shunts open up between the portal and hepatic vein branches, so some blood goes back to the heart completely bypassing the liver.

We need to remove the cause of the hepatocyte damage i.e. remove the HCV. Now we have drugs to do this, so we can attain SVR. The liver cell death stops, proinflammatory cytokine production stops and the HSC's revert back to their quiescent state.  Some suggest the HSC's play an active part in liver regeneration.  As stem cells, they can become hepatocytes, bile duct or blood vessel cells etc.  Then there are the anti-inflammatory cytokines. These promote resorption of the collagen, and obviously would be a great drug to give cirrhotics. There are a host of compounds( ACE inhibitors, TNF-alpha inhibitors etc)- steroids are obvious but would be ill-advised!  There is ongoing research to see whether the K.cells and HSC's play a part in this.

That's it folks. A good cell that does bad things to our liver, then tries to heal it. Cheers.

* You may wonder why I'm interested in this stuff. When you've had the disease for 45 years (18 years as non-A, non-B hepatitis), initially with no hope of a cure, you do a lot of research to see what the virus is doing to your body.



-- Edited by mallani on Wednesday 4th of March 2015 07:29:39 AM

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Geno 1b, IL28B CT,  x3 prior relapser,  ex-cirrhotic, 74 yo, did 48 weeks with Victrelis/Peg./Riba.  VL 1.28m at start, UNDET. at 8 ,12 ,16 ,24 ,30  and 48 weeks.  EOT 15 Feb 2013 , UNDET. at EOT + 28 weeks. SVR!  Still Undet. at EOT +4 years

Malcolm

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